In school, we learned that plants require sunlight, water, CO2, and nutrients from the soil to grow, bloom flowers, and produce fruits. The roots of the plant absorb water from the soil, the leaves absorb carbon dioxide from the air, and the chlorophyll (a substance that makes plants green) consumes energy from sunlight. The light energy is used to convert the water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and nutrients (sugars); some of the sugars are used for growth, while excess sugars are stored in the roots.
To be able to grow, develop, and produce at their best, plants must have specific elements or compounds called plant essential nutrients.
Essential Elements for Plant Growth
Macronutrients are used more regularly and in a higher volume for general plant growth than micronutrients. Deficiencies (especially of macronutrients) can adversely affect plant growth, causing stunted or slow growth, chlorosis (yellow leaves), or even cell death.
Macro/primary nutrients: Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nirtogen (N), Phosphorous (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sulfur (S)
Micro/secondary nutrients: Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Boron (B), Molybdenum (Mo), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Chlorine (Cl), Nickel (Ni), Cobalt (Co), Sodium (Na), Silicon (Si)